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Introduction to Brushless DC Motor

Welcome to BeUDMKE, a professional brushless dc motor manufacturers in China since Y2007, including custom-made ones. As the world is progressing rapidly towards technology, you can see innovation in every field of life including the motor industry. As we know, a motor is a machine that produces electrical energy from mechanical energy. It is divided into two types:

1.Direct Current Motor
2.Alternating Current Motor

As experts in DC motors (DC stands for Direct Current), so, our main focus will be on it. The type of electrical motor that produces mechanical force from the direct current is known as a DC motor. In a world full of advanced technology, DC motors stand as a vital innovation, transforming different industries with their precise and highly efficient working.

DC motors are of various types, with the Brushless DC Motor standing as a pinnacle of advancement. In this article, we will cover everything related to brushless DC motors from their introduction to their applications. Without any further delay, let’s begin with our topic:

What is a Brushless DC Motor?

A brushless DC motor aka electronically commutated motor is a small and powerful type of motor that uses direct current as its source of power. A brushless DC motor is a synchronous motor, which means it has the same speed proportional to the frequency of current.

An electronic controller is employed in brushless DC motors that serve the function of switching DC to the motor windings. The motor windings generate magnetic fields that are followed by permanent magnet rotors. Also, the magnetic fields generated by motor winding rotate in space effectively.

As indicated by the name, Brushless DC motors are free from brushes. Due to a lack of brushes, the brushless DC motors are not able to pass current to the rotor coils. The rotor (a magnet) is fixed in its position and so are the coils that also do not rotate but are fixed in place on the stator. That’s why a brushless DC motor does not require components such as a commutator and brushes.

People also often use BLDC motor as the abbreviation of brushless DC motor in daily life. From another perspective, BLDC motor can also be divided into inrunner and outrunner brushless dc motor, with Hall sensors and sensorless brushless DC motors without Hall sensors. No matter what kind of DC brushless motor it is, it is not like a DC brush motor that can be directly connected to electricity. Instead, it requires a bldc motor controller that matches its voltage and current requirements to work properly.

The voltage of brushless DC motors is usually lithium battery, switching power supply and other DC power supplies; it can be DC12v 24v 36v 48v 72v 96v 310v, etc. The power of 12v, 24v 48v brushless dc motors within 5kw is more common.72v 96v is usually used for bldc motors with rated power higher than 5kw to reduce the rated current and heat of the motor.

How Brushless DC Motor Works?

The working of a brushless DC motor is based on the principle of “Lorentz Force Law”. According to this law:“Whenever a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a force. As a consequence of reaction force, the magnet present inside the motor will experience an equal but opposite force.”                 

The BDLC (brushless DC motor) consists of two important components which are the rotor and stator. The rotating part of the motor is known as a rotor. On the other hand, the part that contains coils of wire and does not move (stationary) is known as a stator. It operates on the principle of Electronic Commutation.

The permanent magnets that are fixed in the motor are able to rotate. Rotation can be achieved by altering the direction of magnetic fields that are produced by stationary coils that are present in the periphery.  Here it should be noted that you can control the rotation, by adjusting the direction and magnitude of current into stationary coils. Controlled and continuous rotation can be ensured by electronic commutation.

What are the differences between brushless DC and brushed DC motors?

As the name suggests, a brushless DC motor does not have brushes which play an important role in the spinning of the motor. Brushless DC motors are driven electronically. On the other hand, brushes are used in the brushed DC motor. It is driven mechanically.

The detail differences between brushless and brushed DC motors is listed hereunder:

1.Working Principles:

Brushed DC Motor: It utilizes a commutator and brushes for switching current.

Brushless DC Motor: It operates on electronic commutation. Both brushes and commutators are absent.

2.Control Methods:

Brushed DC Motor: It is simply designed and comes with the option of limited controls. It can run by directly connecting the positive and negative poles, and it can reverse direction by connecting the positive and negative poles reversely. The control method is simple.

Brushless DC Motor: It is an advanced type of motor. It is controlled through electronic circuits, ensuring precise adjustments. Brushless DC motors must be matched with a suitable driver to operate. Most drivers can support communication functions such as RS232 and RS485, 0-5V analog speed regulation, and some drivers also support PWM speed regulation. Start and stop, speed regulation, forward and reverse rotation are all realized through the driver.

3.Lifespan:

Brushed DC Motor: It has a short lifespan as compared to a brushless DC motor. Limited by the wear of the carbon brushes, the lifespan of a DC brushed motor does not exceed 2,000 hours at most, making it unsuitable for equipment and applications that have high requirements on lifespan.

Brushless DC Motor: As brushes are not present in this motor, it can run long. If the bearing allows, the life of the brushless DC motor can be 6,000 to 10,000 hours, or even longer.In the long run, it can actually save users the cost of using the motor.

4.Environmental Protection:

Brushed DC Motor: Debris is produced by brushes. Because the carbon brushes wear out, a certain amount of dust will be produced, which will cause certain pollution to the environment.

Brushless DC Motor: It has a cleaner operation and has very little impact on the environment.

5.Efficiency (Energy Saving):

Brushed DC Motor: Due to brush friction, it has lower efficiency. The efficiency of brushed motors is generally 60% to 75%.

Brushless DC Motor: It has Higher efficiency as compared to the former motor. The system efficiency of a normal brushless motor can reach 80% to 95%. It can reduce the motor power and energy consumption to a great extent; thereby saving the cost of the driver and reducing the heat generation of the motor.

6.Noise:

Brushed DC Motor: Audible noise is produced due to the components like commutator and brushes.

Brushless DC Motor: Such motors work quietly and produce little to no noise because of the absence of components like commutators and brushes.

7.High Speed:

Brushed DC Motor: It has a limited speed. The speed depends on the commutator and brushes. Usually the speed of a brushed motor cannot be higher than 3000rpm/min.

Brushless DC Motor: These types of motors are capable of higher speeds, which is why they are used in high-performance applications. If the power is not high, the rated speed of the brushless motor can reach up to 10,000 to 20,000 rpm/min, which is very suitable for applications with high speed requirements such as power tools.

8.High Power:

Brushed DC Motor: Due to their wear and heat problems, they are less likely to be used in applications that require high power, usually not higher than 2kw.

Brushless DC Motor: As they produce little to no noise and have the capability of heat dissipation, they are more suitable for high-power applications. 5kw brushless bldc dc motor, 10kw bldc motor, are very common power for brushless DC motors. 72v 5000w bldc motor kit price is also asked by customers. The max.power which we can make already reach to 30kw.

In summary, Brushless DC motors offer numerous perks in terms of lifespan, efficiency, environmental impact, and control precision compared to Brushed DC motors. They are often preferable for applications requiring superior performance and reliability.

What are the Advantages of a Brushless DC Motor?

A BLDC motor entertains its user with numerous advantages. Some are listed below:

1.High power-to-weight ratio
2.Highly efficient
3.Rapid speed control (rpm) and torque
4.Low maintenance
5.Numerous applications

Applications of Brushless DC Motor:

Brushless DC motors find numerous applications across different industries due to their numerous features including efficiency, reliability, and precise control. Some applicatione listed hereunder:

1.Oil Pumps:

Brushless DC motors or BLDC motors are used in oil pumps for their efficiency, and accurate monitoring, ensuring a constant and reliable flow in various applications including automotive engines.

2.Industrial Automation Equipment:

BLDC motors play an important role in various industrial automation applications due to their accurate control and high efficiency.

Such machines include the following:

1.conveyor systems
2.Robotics
3.CNC machines

3.Water Pumps:

In water pumps, such motors provide efficient and reliable water circulation, commonly used in aquariums, HVAC systems, and water supply systems.

4.Lawn Mowers:

Electric lawn mowers benefit from brushless DC motors, delivering effective and quiet operation, making them a preferable option for environmentally friendly lawn care equipment.

5.Power Tools:

BLDC motors enhance the performance of power tools. Such motors can provide high efficiency, longer lifespan, and better control for applications like saws, drills, and sanders.

6.Food Machinery:

BLDC motors are utilized in food processing equipment including pulverizers, juicers, and mixers for their precise control over speed and torque, ensuring efficient blending, juicing, and pulverizing without compromising on reliability.

Maintenance Tips for Brushless DC Motor:

Maintaining a Brushless DC (BLDC) motor can enhance its performance and longevity. Here are some maintenance tips:

1.Make sure that the motor’s surroundings are free from dirt to prevent particles from entering and affecting its parts.

2.Regularly check connections to ensure they are secure. Loose connections can be a cause of failures and potential damage.

3.Keep an eye on the temperature. Excessive heat generated during operation can degrade performance and shorten the lifespan. Make sure of proper ventilation and cooling.

4.Vibrations may indicate mechanical issues or misalignment Frequently check for vibrations and address any underlying problems immediately.

5.If the brushless DC motor uses sensors for commutation, periodically check their functionality. This is important to ensure correct feedback and proper control of the motor.

6.BLDC motors can be damaged due to moisture. Protect the motor from moisture and water to prevent corrosion and related issues.

7.Inspect motor bearings for signs of wear or damage. For smooth working of the motor, you can either replace them or simply lubricate them.

8.Conduct routine inspections to identify any signs of wear, damage, or unusual conditions. Address issues promptly to your brushless DC motor manufacturer to prevent further damage.

9.Adhere to the manufacturer’s maintenance recommendations and guidelines provided in the motor’s documentation.

By following the above maintenance tips, you can increase the longevity and optimal performance of your Brushless DC motor, reducing the risk of downtime and unexpected failures.

Development Prospects of Brushless DC Motors:

As technology is progressing rapidly, the developmental prospects of brushless DC motors are also increasing and look promising. Some important development prospects that are seen till now include reliability and durability, it is highly efficient in fusion with electronics, able to reduce EMI (EMI stands for Electromagnetic Interference), and has precise position control, its demand is increasing in the electric vehicle market and robotics due to high efficiency and no noise.

Also, they have become an important part of renewable energy sources. Ongoing innovation in manufacturing technologies plays an important role in introducing brushless DC motors with more advanced functions. Soon, they will be available for numerous options irrespective of previous applications. And witness growing acceptance across different industries.  

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